Minerals of Peru

Quiruvilca District

The Quiruvilca district is located 80 km east of Trujillo; the different working in this area
are from 3.800 to 4.000 metres.   This district is an old lead-zinc-silver-copper deposit
located on layered volcanic rocks of the Miocene Calipuy Formation.   The ore deposits
have four distinct zones: Enargite zone, Transition zone, Lead-Zinc zone and Stibnite
zone.
Realgar on Quartz

For mineral collectors Quiruvilca best known for its fine Pyrite (in different crystal
forms: pyritohrdrons, octahedrons, dodecahedrons and cubes), Orpiment (among
the best orpiment in the world: found in crystals up to 7 cm in sizewith bright
orange colour) , Hutchinsonite (the world's finest for the species, in black to silver
black prismatic crystals) and Enargite (in showy specimens in well defined crystals
sometimes encrusted with pyrite), but here it is possible find many other minerals 
of good quality for collector: Arsenopyrite (uncommon in good specimens, but when
found very attractive in crystals 2 cm long), Dolomite, Enargite, Galena, Sphalerite,
Stibnite, Tetraedrite, Apatite, Barite, Baumahurite, Bournonite (crystals 3 cm sometimes
in associations with pyrite and calcopyrite), Calcite, Chalcopyrite, Scheelite, Wurtzite, etc.

Pasto Bueno District

The Pasto Bueno district is located in the northern Cordillera Blanca approxumately 90
km east of the Pacific coast with elevations  from 3.300 to 5.000 metres. Pasto Bueno
is a vein-type tungsten deposit, mineralization occurs in steeply dipping quartz veins
associated with the late tertiary quartz monzonite consuco stock.  In this district are
located the famous Huayllapon mine,  La Magistral mine and Mundo Nuevo mine and
Tamboras mine.
Rhodocrosite Crystals

Near mineral collectors Pasto Bueno is  known for its   Pyrite, Fluorite (occurs as pale
green crystals often in associations with quartz, rarely as fine octahedrons to 8 cm
on and associated with hubnerite and quartz), Sphalerite, Orpiment (nice orange
colour), Hubnerite (the world's best in the world!! in crystals up to 25 cm in lenght
usually in associations with quartz xx; smaller hubnerite crystals can be traslucent in
deep cherry red colour), Quartz, Tetrahedrite, Rhodocrosite (the Huyllapon mine has
produced rhodochrosite of exeptional quality among the best in the world, the
crystals occurs in several shades of pink to near red in association with fluorite or
quartz), Fluoroapatite, Augelite, Scheelite.

Raura District

The Raura district is polymetallyc deposit of veins and replacement orebodies located
northeasr Lima, about 15 km due north of the town of Oyon. The main sedimentary
unit in the Raura area is Cretaceus Machay Limestone; known mineralization covers
about 24 square kilometres.  The Raura depression contains several orebodies each
with different mineralization: Catuvo orebody is predominantly in Pb-Zn; Lake Ninacocha
orebody is Ag-rich galena; Esperanza  and Restauradora orebody.

Minerals offered from Raura district are: Barite, Calcite, Calcopyrite, Fluorite, Gypsum
(in crystals over a meter in lenght), Manganoancalcite, Pyrite, Rhodochrosite,
Stibnite, Tetrahedrite, Saligmanite.

Pachapaqui District

The Pachapaqui district is in the northwest corner of Bolognesi Province; this area is
extensively glaciated, the mining district occupies an area 18 km long by 9 km wide
with different mine from about 3800 to 4500 metres.   Three main types of deposit
are recognized: fissure veins and replacement, contact m,etamorphic and stratabound.

Minerals offered from Pachapaqui district are: Arsenopyrite, Bournonite (in black to gun
metal blue till 2,5 cm in size), Calcite, Calcopyrite, Fluorite, Galena, Helvite (in bright
canary-yellow tetrahedral crystals), Manganaxinite, Manganoancalcite, Pyrite,
Quartz, Rhodochrosite, Rhodonite, Sphalerite, Tetrahedrite (highly lustrous crystals up
to 2.5 cmin brilliant black to silver black group).

Huanzala Mine

The Huanzala mine is about 250 km north of Lima in the northwest corner of the
Huallanca district.   The orebodies contain pyrite, lead-zinc, copper, silver-tin-
tungsten minerals.

This mine is very famous for the incredible pyrites and for the fantastic pink fluorites,
probably the best in the world for quality and association.

Here follows a list of the mineral occurrences in Huanzala, giving an idea of the richness
of this mine complex:
Acanthite, Alabandite, 'Apatite', Arsenopyrite, Barite, Bornite, Calcite, Canfieldite,
Cassiterite, Chalcopyrite, Cosalite, Dolomite, Emplectite, Enargite, Fluorapatite, Fluorite
(most fluorite from Huanzala is colorless to green and more rarely in shades of purple to
pink), Galena, Hessite, Hocartite, Hübnerite, Kaolinite, Lillianite, Natrolite, Polybasite,
Pyrargyrite, Pyrite, Pyrrhotite, Quartz, Rhodochrosite, Rhodonite, Scheelite, 'Sericite',
Silver, Sphalerite, Stannite, Stephanite, Tennantite, Tungstenite, Wittichenite, Wurtzite.

The mine is still active, being one of the most important in the region nowadays.

Uchucchacua Mine

Uchucchacua is a silver-manganese-lead-zinc replacement vein and skarn district
located about 30 km south of Huanzala, elavations range is from 4.500 to 5.100
metres; this mine is very famous among the collectors for the very nice samples
of rhodocrosite, of gemmy quality and schalenoedral shape, the only ones can
compete with the Sweet Home mine samples in Colorado and the South African
ones; usually occurs on a dark manganese-rich matrix.

Recently in association with the rhodocrosites there some spectacular silver wires
that create an association unique for attractiveness and mineralogical value. The
mine is now the largest silver mine of Peru and the extracting activity is continuing.
in addition to the silver, also Manganese is very common in the mine, with
Rhodocrosite, but also with some rare minerals, among which Uchucchacuaite,
a rare sulphur of Manganes, antimonium,silver and lead.

Other minerals interestin for collector are: Arsenpolybasite, Kutnohorite, Pyrrhotite,
Acanthite, Fluorite, Proustite, Pyrargirite, Pyrite.

The mine was of the most important silver mine in Perù and it appears that the mine
will be in production for at least another ten years.

Cerro de Pasco

Cerro de Pasco Mine is exploited in a pit, 2400 x 2000 m wide and 500 m deep. 
Explotation developed in four steps: first the oxidation area; second the volcanic
area; third a Pb-Zn-Ag massive sulphides; fourth a body with pyrrotite, marcasite
and minor vivianite.   By a geological point of view rocks in the area are mainly
sedimentary, Paleozoic to Quaternary,
and useful material is concentrated in Giurassic to Triassic limestones. Tectonic
structures are oriented N-S; tertiary magmatic activity set here in place both effusive
and intrusive bodies: the Rumiallana Pyroclastic conglomerate and quartzitic
monzonite dykes. Compressive stresses subsequently fractured both sedimentary
and ignous rocks; hydrotermal solutions gradually deposited almost all the minerals
in these fractures.

In this mine have been indentified more than 58 minerals, many of them interesting
only for systematic or micro resercher, the most important for mineral collectors are:
Barite, Enargite, Galena, Pyrite, Sphalerite, Tennantite, Gratonite.

In the same district is located the Colquijirca Mine that offer Chalcopyrite, Enargite,
Native Silver.

Huaron Mines

Huaron lies 40 km south south-west of Cerro de Pasco; the mines are located on the
east flank of the western Cordillera of the Andes at elevations ranging from 4.300 to
4.800 meters. Huaron is a complex copper-lead-zinc-silver deposit and there are about
20 minesin the Huaron district.   

The most important minerals for collector are: Chalcopyrite (in nice pseudo-tetrahedral
shape often bigger than 5 cm in size), Dolomite, Galena, Pyrite, Quartz, Rhodocrosite,
Sphalerite.

Morococha District

The Morococha district is about 4.400 metres elevation and is located roughly 17 km
east-northeast of Casapalca; in the ores are present arsenic and antimony and in
association other minerals.

For mineral collectors Morococha offer Enargite, Pyrite, Quartz, Tetraedrite, Siderite,
Vivianite, Rhodocrosite.

Casapalca District

The town of Casapalca is about a four-hour drive east of Lima and is an elevation of
4.300 metres.   Epithermal silver ores which contain acanthite, proustite, pyrargirite
and myargirite were found with pyrite in a siliceous and pyritic gangue; three main
zones of mineralization have been defined which are based on alteration, metal
content and mineral type: Zone I is intensely silicified, with no carbonates in the central
part and pure calcite in the edge of the zones; Zone II contains abundant carbonate
and sericite, sphalerite, tetraedrite and galena are the main ore minerals deposit; Zone
III has dolomite, siderite and rodocrosite as the dominant carbonates.

The most important minerals for collecting are: Calcite, Manganoncalcite, Chalcopyrite,
Dolomite, Galena, Pyrite, Quartz, Rhodocrosite, Sphalerite, Tetraedrite, Anhydrite,
Barite, Bournonite, Geocronite, Gypsum.

Pampa Blanca Areas

Pampa Blanca is a very small village located in the valley of the Pisco Chiris River on the
road called 'Carretera de los Liberatores' the link Huancano to Huancavelica in the
Cordillera Occidental.  This is a region very rich of mine and very famous among mineral
collector, here a short description of minerals and localities:

Rosario Mabel Mine (now La Flor del Perù II ) and other localities on Gato Moro Mountain:
the firts outstanding specimens that was finding in localities was the worldwide
famous specimens of epidote crystals in fascicular aggregate till 10 cm in lenght,
sometimes in association with quartz; from the same localities also andradite crystals.  
Only in a second time miners started to take care of the quartz that occur in Japan-law
twins in trasparent and semitrasparent crystals.

Ullpac Mine ( now La Flor del Perù I): from this mine, located on the other side of the
river on the Cerro Ullpac, the first Japan-law twins crystals of quartz

San Genaro Mine: from this mine Pink Quartz (quarzo rosado),   Sulphur, Silver
Sulphosalt and Barite

Julcani Mine: from this mine Enargite, Tennantite, Barite, ..

Julcani District

The Julcani district is located about 65 km by road southeast of the city of Huancavelica
at an elevation of 4.200 metres.  The Julcani district is dominated by a series of
rhyodacitic to dacitic dikes, volcanic domes and pyroclastic material.   In this district are
located many interesting mine for collector:

Herminia Mine:  Barite, Bournonite (in nice crystals from black to steel-gray up to 2,5
cm), Chalcopyrite, Enargite, Pyrite, Siderite, Stibnite, Tennantite.

Lucrecia Mine: Barite, Tennantite

Tentadora Mine: Galena, Pyrite, Quartz

Estela Mine: Apatite, Arsenopyrite, Bismuthinite

Mimosa Mine: Bismothinite, Boulangerite

Sacarmento Mine: Orèpiment, Realgar

 Castrovirreyna District

The Castrovirreyna district is located along  the road from Huancavelica to Pisco; this
district is composed by  a series of vulcanic peaks that average about 5.000 metres
in elevations.    There are five major mines in the district: Caudalosa, Candelaria, San
Genaro Carmen Lira, Reliquias Mine.

The most important minerals for collector are: Barite, Boulangerite, Bournonite,
Chalcopyrite, Galena, Miargyrite, Polybasite, Proustite, Pyrargyrite (very nice crystals
over 4 cm in size, among the best in the world), Pyrite, Quartz, Rhodochrosite, Native
Silver, Sphalerite, Stibnite, Armayonite, Tetraedrite.